Fluorine: Fluorine(F2)is a basic element with the Atomic
Number of 9, and Atomic Weight of 18.998. It is found in nature in the mineral know as Fluorspar and in the combined state
constitutes about 0.078% of the earths crust. Fluorine is the most reactive element of the Halogens group in the Periodic
Fluorspar has been used to make other fluorine containing chemical compounds since the 16th century.
In the 18th century, sulfuric acid was first used to extract fluorine from fluorspar to make Hydrofluoric Acid. Since that
time Hydrofluoric Acid (HF), has been used to be the primary intermediate chemical in processes in making other fluorine containing
chemical compounds, including a large variety of fluorocarbon compounds. This chemical conversion process in commonly called
Hydrofluorination. There are now several commercial manufacturers and suppliers in the U.S.A. of Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid
for industrial customers and technical grades for laboratories, etc.
There are a large number recently developed
fluorine containing chemical compounds where intermediate fluorine compounds are used in the process to form the new chemical
compound. These processes are referred to as Intermediate - Fluorination processes.
Only in the last century
has the isolation of pure elemental fluorine gas been commercially available. That process of isolation of Fluorine is by
"Electrolytic separation" of Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid into Hydrogen Gas and Fluorine Gas(F2). This process occurs in what
is called a Fluorine Electrolytic Cell. The Cell contains a molten fluorine salt compound with Hydrofluoric Acid as the electrolyte
in the cell. When electrically charged with DC current across the submerged anodes and cathodes in the cell, the Hydrogen
gas is released from the cathode and Fluorine Gas is released from the Anode each in separate gas chambers in the cell.
There are a large number of fluorine containing chemical compounds recently developed that can only be formed by processing
the base chemical compound with some form of elemental fluorine gas. This chemical process is referred to as Fluorination.
Fluorine gas is also used in the process of surface conditioning on various Hydrocarbon plastic containers, etc. for solvent
and fuel storage. More recently, pure fluorine gas is being used to surface clean and treat components in the semiconductor
There are several companies in the United States that commercially produce Fluorine gas for customers.
Gaseous elemental fluorine stored under pressure has a very high risk level for accidental fires. Compressed gas cylinders
of Fluorine Gas are most commonly sold commercially in a mixture with other inert gases in concentrations less that 20% fluorine.
For those industries that need pure elemental fluorine in their processes or need large quantities of fluorine, the "safest
and most economical method" of obtaining Fluorine gas is to obtain and operate a "Fluorine Gas Generation System", that produces
fluorine on demand with very limited surge capacity storage between the generation system and the system that uses the fluorine